Monday, January 13, 2020
In recent years, many Muslims have come to accept the notion of democracy but there is a variety of opinion as to its precise meaning. They have sought to delineate Islamic forms of democracy, or popular political participation, seeking to provide an Islamic rationale whose legitimacy finds its roots in tradition. The Islamification of democracy has been based on a modern process of reinterpretation of the traditional Islamic concepts of political deliberation or consultation, community consensus, and personal interpretation or reinterpretation to support notions of parliamentary democracy; this also extends to include representative elections, and religious reform. Islamic organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhoods in Egypt and Jordan, AlgeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Islamic Salvation Front, IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Muhammadiya and Nahdatual Ulama ostensibly have advocated the principle of democratic elections and, have participated in parliamentary elections (Common Dreams NewsCenter, 2005) As with the interpretation of Islam, notions of democracy and the structuring of administration of justice take on different forms in different Muslim countries with different experience. Throughout the Islamic world, governments have adopted varying degrees of self-representation in response to unique historical circumstances. Turkey, for example, is a parliamentary, secular democracy. Indonesia is one of the world's largest republics, but an uncertain one as the nation still struggles to evolve a representative political system after decades of repressive authoritarian rule. Iraq is currently a case study in nation-building in the aftermath of the dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein and Iran is a theocratic republic with a growing democratic reform movement. Whilst many Islamic states have moved closer to democracy, the aforementioned groups and States along with several other Islamic States, particularly in the Middle East, advocate the death penalty as a capital punishment for many different types of crimes. It has been claimed that IranÃ¢â¬â¢s execution rate is second in the world only to that of China. However, this assertion has also been variously dismissed by the regime as exaggeration of the facts (Gelbart, 2010). Nevertheless, the death penalty is legal and permitted for certain crimes in Iran. Capital punishment can be administered for the crimes such as treason, rape, sodomy, terrorism, murder, the trafficking of drugs, paedophilia, kidnap and armed robbery (FIDH, 2011). The present Iranian regime has been a subject of controversy and stringent criticism in the West for some time now. The current central disputes focus predominantly around the research and manufacture of nuclear weapons although it has also received controversy for its policy on execution and capital punishment, perhaps the most controversial occurring over the execution of those under 18, considered by law as not yet adult (minors). These State-legitimised executions have been raised as issues because they directly violate the Convention of the Rights of the Child, a treaty signed by Iran which protects children from execution (EMINE, 2012). Iran has attempted to defray these allegations by claiming dispensation in these cases (and some others) because certain sections of the Convention have been deemed incompatible with Ã¢â¬ËIslamic jurisprudenceÃ¢â¬â¢ (DN. SE, 2008). The Iranian regime has also received criticism for the alleged use of stoning as a means of exacting the death penalty, although these allegations have been denied by the Iranian judiciary as Western propaganda, along with the allegations of the execution of minors (BBC NEWS, 2005). In February 2012 a new penal code was adopted by Iran which officially legislated against the administration of the death penalty to minors (those under the age of 18) and those of who are subject to diminished mental development. In some rare instances the death penalty can still be applied to minors who commit murder between the ages of 15 and 18 years old but only if the judge is completely confident that the crime was entirely and absolutely premeditated and that the perpetrators in question are as mentally developed as adults (Bozorgmehr, 2010). The issue of Iranian executions carried out against minors has also been a salient point in the campaigns of numerous human rights groups. These groups claim that in spite of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s signing on the Convention on the Rights of the Child they are actually the largest executor of minors in the world. This may be due to the disparity of definition regarding children in Iran. The Islamic Penal Code (Article 49) defines a child in Iran, as stipulated by Islamic law, as Ã¢â¬Ësomeone who has not reached the age of bulugh (puberty)Ã¢â¬â¢ (Human Rights Watch, 2008). This discrepancy may be due to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the lunar Islamic calendar for the determination of criminal responsibility, as opposed to the standard solar calendar, which is longer. This means that in some cases a criminal who faced the death penalty Iran would be tired as an18 year old in accordance with Islamic years but only be 17 years old in the Western standard solar calendar (OÃ¢â¬â¢Toole, 2007). As Marx (1843) famously asserted Ã¢â¬ËReligion is the opium of the massesÃ¢â¬â¢. Throughout all history, religion has played the starring role in much of human conflict, with philosophical, political, sociological, as well as physical repercussions. Most of religions profess and share positive life philosophies and values, although it is commonly recognised that some religious entities and States have used their power to realise crimes against humanity. Some religious regimes have also used the respective doctrine of their associated religions, to carry out perceivably draconian brutality against their people, be it for political disagreement or legal dissent. It is difficult to foresee how Islamic societies can realise their tremendous potential without genuine political reform. Evidently, it is not Islam that is the greatest obstacle to serious democratisation and reform against the death penalty. On the contrary, the most important impediment is the continuing resistance of established political regimes, whose leaders espouse the language of democracy but rarely permit political liberalisation beyond that which they can orchestrate and control. Mona Yacoubian (Gelbart, 2010) makes a persuasive case for greater international involvement in urging the Iranian government toward greater reform. The key to the success of democratisation and reformation of the death penalty in Islamic societies is imposition of more freedom, expanding freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of thought, and freedom to form independent organisations. The process may be long and slow but it must be real, sustainable, and measures should be taken to prevent the reversal of it. History shows that many governments in the Muslim world have become adept at promising democratic reforms only to fail on their promises ad deliver more oppression. In this regard, the international community needs to exert sustained pressure on the existing governments to sue for liberalisation, democratisation and extension of civil liberties: only through such routes can true societal freedom be attained. Real and genuine reforms are needed; liberal and moderate voices cannot be heard in an environment of fear and repression. The United States and European countries should stop implicitly and explicitly supporting all Middle Eastern dictatorships and oppressive regimes (rather than just those who operate in accordance with their political machinations); this they should do in the name of stability and to promote peace and strengthen the voices of liberal Islam, rather than propagating sometimes spurious propaganda in order to exercise military power and at the same time undermining their own arguments. Muslim countries must also gain experience with democratic institutions and practices. Nonetheless, the success to the development of democracy will necessarily be dependent on the success of the citizens to ultimately resolve their inner crisis, but this situation in turn will always be hampered unless the general unrest and political instability either plateaus or resolves of its own volition.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In the United States, almost every employee is to protected under federal employment and anti-discrimination laws. These laws make it unlawful to discriminate against a variety of groups that have historically been subjugated to unfair treatment. The major federal anti-discrimination law is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This law prevents discrimination on the basis of race/color, sex, religion, or national origin. It also prohibits retaliation against an employee for asserting their rights under the law and applies to all term and conditions of employment, including hiring, firing, promotion, compensation, and assignment decisions. Additionally, the equal pay act mandates that men and women must receive the same pay if they perform the same work. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits discrimination against those who are 40 years or older. For individuals with a disability, the Americans with Disabilities Act protects them from discrimination and also provide s additional requirements, such as reasonable accommodations. In addition to these federal laws, state laws vary greatly in terms of accommodations in the workplace and the protection they provide to employees. These laws may vary greatly from state to state and many extend similar protections to groups that are not covered by federal laws. These rules place significant regulations on how employers can make decisions on hiring and other terms of employment but many factors affect this complexShow MoreRelatedCivil Rights Act of 19641840 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBefore the Civil Rights Act of 1964, segregation in the United States was commonly practiced in many of the Southern and Border States. This segregation while supposed to be separate but equal, was hardly that. Blacks in the South were discriminated against repeatedly while laws did nothing to protect their individual rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ridded the nation of this legal segregation and cleared a path towards eq uality and integration. The passage of this Act, while forever alteringRead More Civil Rights Act of 1964 Essay1338 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Civil Rights Act of 1964 resulted from one of the most controversial House and Senate debates in history. It was also the biggest piece of civil rights legislation ever passed. The bill actually evolved from previous civil rights bills in the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The bill passed through both houses finally on July 2, 1964 and was signed into law at 6:55 P.M. EST by President Lyndon Johnson. The act was originally drawn up in 1962 under President Kennedy before his assassinationRead MoreEssay on Civil Rights Act of 19646131 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesThe Civil Rights Act of 1964 Danielle Endler Human Resources 4050, Spring 2013 Semester Professor David Penkrot May 3, 2013 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is considered by some to be one of the most important laws in American history. (The Most Important Cases, Speeches, Laws Documents in American History) This Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2, 1964 and it is a Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensive federal statute aimed at reducing discrimination in public accommodations and employmentRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPresident John F. Kennedy s New Frontier programs, Johnson wanted to expand civil rights and wage war on poverty. More than fifty years later, the effects of the Great Society on American life can still be felt. Civil rights fell under the scope of Johnson s Great Society programs. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a law that ended discrimination in the US at all levels of government. Without the Civil Rights Act of 1964, blacks and other people of color would not have the opportunity to runRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmericans and even immigrants are afforded their basic civil rights based on the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act, which was signed into law on July 2, 1964, declared all discrimination for any reason based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin will be deemed illegal in the United States (National Park Service, n.d.). When the act was enacted, people had to become more open minded; more accepting to the various cultures and backgrounds of individuals. Understanding that concept leadsRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964848 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesVII, Civil Rights Act of 1964, followed by a brief description of person al experiences involving discrimination, and concluding with a reflection as to how the American workforce is protected by law. The writing will cover any ethically related issues, personal thoughts and ideas, and illustrations of how the law pertains directly to personal events, as well as provide direct links to any and all reference material covered under the purpose of this writing. Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964 TheRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 19641702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessubject to, and the subject of, discrimination. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 originally did not include gender in the billÃ¢â¬â¢s wording. Were it not for a backhanded comment made in jest by a backward congressman, women would not have been afforded equal rights protection in employment (Freeman, 1991; 2004). President Harry Truman inaugurated the legal Civil Rights Movement. Though people of color had long been yearning and fighting for their rights, President Truman began this legal process nationallyRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 19641106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ (Cassanello). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the most influential event in the Civil Rights Movement because it paved way for ending discrimination and segregation, and giving more rights to African- Americans. During the Civil Rights Movement African- Americans were fighting to get their rights that were being taken away from them little by little. Starting in 1955 and going well into the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, African- Americans started to protest against discriminatory laws and acts such as JimRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbetween conflicting viewpoints are still being faced by Americans today. (Tiona/Claire) Equality for African Americans has made remarkable progress since the approval of the Civil Rights Act, but discrimination continues. A significant step towards racial equality was the Civil Rights Act of 1964, proposed by John F. Kennedy. This act brought an end to segregation in public facilities such as buses, restaurants, hotels, and places of entertainment. It also banned employment discrimination on the termsRead MoreThe Civil Right Act Of 19641072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTitle VII of the Civil Right Act of 1964, and both under the Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact. Dunlap feels that he has been discriminated during the interview process. The district court concluded that TVAs subjective hiring process permitted racial bias against the plaintiff and other black job applicants. Tennessee Valley Authorities was found guilty of discrimination against the plaintiff. The Title Vii of the Civil Right Act of 1964 enforces the constitutional right to vote, to confer
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sample details Pages: 20 Words: 5864 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? The world having a turn down in food production per capita and the growing global demand for food make it essential to produce solution for maximum consumption of available resources and improve crops to triumph over this problem. In many arid and semi arid regions, good soils are scarce with their overall productivity declining because of soil degradation and lack of proper soil and water management practices. Salt-affected soils, which are widespread in arid, semi-arid and coastal regions of sub-humid areas, have low productivity. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Food production per capita" essay for you Create order There are 380 million hectares of saline soils on earths land surface, and of these 140 million hectares are highly saline and have higher electrical conductivity (EC). Food production in many parts of the world is severely affected by high salt contents in soils. In southern Asia and the Near East, for example, several million hectares of agricultural area are affected by salinity (e.g. 6.3 million ha in Pakistan, 2.5 million ha in India) causing losses in food production, excessive runoff due to compaction of saline soils and progressive desertification. It is estimated that nearly 10 % of the total land of the world used for crop production is adversely affected by soil salinity. The major solutes comprising the dissolved mineral salts that affect soil fertility are the cations Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ and anions Cl-, SO4, HCO33-and SIO32-. Normally, salt-affected soils often occur under natural conditions. Salinity problems of greatest importance in agricultural areas arise when previously fertile, productive soils become salinized as a result of irrigation. Salinity and crop production Salinity is increasingly important constraint to crop production worldwide (Ghassemi et al., 1995) regardless of the cause (ion toxicity, water deficit and nutritional imbalance) high salinity in the root zone severely impeded normal plant growth and development, resulting in reduced crop productivity or crop failure. The main effect of salinity on plant growth and crop production are: Slow and insufficient germination of seeds. Physiological drought, wilting, desiccation of plant. Stunted growth, reduce branching. Retarded flowering, fewer flowers, sterility and small seed. Low yield of seed and other plant parts. Prevention and reclamation of soil salinity Different measures are taken to reclaim the saline land which includes physical, chemical and biological. Physical methods of land reclamation: The proper solution of salinity and water-logging is through engineering technology i.e. proper drainage system of all agricultural land. This technology has been used in Pakistan at national level to control salinity by draining the soil salt through a network of surface and subsurface drain and tube wells. Chemical Method of Land reclamation: Although reclamation of salt-affected soils by chemical means is an established technology, traditional reclamation methods have been proved to be difficult (Rafiq, 1990), inadequate (Qureshi, et al., 1992), expensive (Qureshi, 1993; Qureshi and Barrett-Lenard, 1998), and uneconomical (Rafiq, 1975) on highly impermeable dense saline-sodic soils in Pakistan. Further, under the existing circumstances not only the scope of this approach is limited, its sustainability is also questionable (Qureshi, 1993; Qureshi and Barrett-Lenard, 1998). Biological method of salt land reclamation: This approach is based on growing salt tolerant plant species and use of saline waters to utilize salt-affected soils has been explored to a lesser extent (Qureshi and Barrett-Lenard, 1998). However, an understanding of the plant responses to various stresses and the mechanisms that make some species/genotype more tolerant than other is essential. Mechanism of salt tolerance in plants: Plants survive under saline conditions by adapting some special physiological, biochemical and anatomical mechanisms, which enable them to grow under salt stress. In general, plants avoid toxic concentration of salts either by restricting ion uptake or by compromising with high salt concentration through osmotic adjustment. Some important mechanisms for salt tolerance are: Histological changes under salt stress: Plant transport salts to shoots (even in halophytes) the amount of salts in excess is required for turgor maintenance. Excretion of salts through special glands i.e. salt glands is one of the most important mechanisms for salt tolerance (Gorham, 1996). Salt gland controls the salts content of leaves. The quantitative contribution of salt glands to regulation of salt concentration in leaves has been studied in relatively few species. However, a substantial portion of salt entering a leaf of Leptochloa fusca can be excreted through salt glands (Gorham, 1996). The structural details of various kinds of salt glands have also been reviewed by Thomson et. al. (1988) and Fahn (1988). They may be multicellular organs of highly specialized cells, for example Avicenna marina, or are simple type glands comprising of only two cells, e.g in Leptochloa fusca (Wieneke et.al. 1987). Morphological mechanisms Salinity causes several specific structural changes that disturb plant water balance (Robinson et. al. 1983). These structural change include fewer and smaller leaves, less number of stomata per unit leaf area, thickening of leaf cuticle and wax deposition of leaf surface, reduced differentiation and vascular tissues, increased development of tyloses, earlier lignification of roots, low chlorophyll content, higher elasticity of cell walls, fully developed water storing tissues and increased succulence (Yeo and Flowers 1984). These responses vary with plant species and the type of salinity (Aslam et. al. 1993). Physiological mechanism under salinity Plant has the ability to regulate the influx of salt, which determine salt tolerance. In the pathway from the rhizodermis (the point of initial entry of salts in to roots) to the xylem, the movement of ions could be controlled by exchange processes in the cortex (Staples and Toenniesson, 1984) enforced passage through membranes (and hence selectivity) at the endodermis and by selective xylem loading (Gorham, 1996). Some species recirculate sodium in the phloem, although this is mainly a feature of salt-sensitive species such as beans and lupines (Jeschke et. al. 1987). Young expanding leaves are supplied with a potassium-rich inorganic solute supply via phloem, while sodium accumulates in older leaves, often replacing potassium accumulated previously. The potassium in older leaves is thus available for recirculation via phloem to sink tissues (Gorham, 1996). All the plants are salt excluders with varying degrees of exclusion. Some important physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance are: Osmotic adjustment Exclusion/inclusion of ions Potassium-sodium selectivity and Compartmentation Tomato Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the major vegetable crops of the world especially of the most of countries like America, Japan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and China. Tomato was grown commercially in 161 countries during 2004 with a production of over 115 million metric tonnes. The leading countries in tomato production are the United States of America, Italy, Egypt, Mexico and Spain. The United States of America accounts for about one fifth of the worlds production (Moresi and Liverotti, 1982). It is a member of nightshade family (Solanaceae) along with pepper, eggplant and potato. Botanically it is classified as fruit, since it is developed from ovary, although it is commercially recognized and treated as vegetable. It include the genus with several Known wild forms of tomato, i.e., Lycopersiocon pimpinellifolium, L. hirsutum, L. peruvianum, that have been useful in breeding programs for biotic and abiotic stresses. Ecology Tomato bloom at different latitude under a wide range of soil types, temperature and it can be cultivated any where by providing it adequate nutrients. In cool seasons the production of tomato in the tropics tend to be more successful in mountain region or in low land (Ruben, 1980). Production of Tomato Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is the second most important vegetable crop next to potato. Present world production is about 100 million tons fresh fruit produced on 3.7 million hectares. In Pakistan tomato production has been increased since 90s.During 2001-2002 tomato crops was grown on average area of 29-30 thousand hectares with annual production of 294 thousand tons and the average yield is 13.8 tons per hectare (Anonymous, 2001). Nutritional Contents: Tomato can be consumed either cooked or raw. It is used in a variety of ways i.e. ketchup, beverages, salad, sauces and various other products. After processing oil can be extracted from the seed and the residual seed cake used for animal feed. Tomatoes have a very high nutritive value. It contains protein, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, b-carotene Ca, Fe and carbohydrates. It is the cheapest and richest source of vitamin C and A (Kanahama, 1980). The acids present in it are citric acid, malic acid, aminobutyric acid, cis-aconitic acid and formic acid along with fair amount of histidine, lysine and certain minerals (Loh and Woodroof, 1975). Factors affecting tomato production Biotic factors Diseases and pathogens are important among biotic stresses. Some diseases reach epidemic proportion and causes serious crop losses which others causes only negligible crop losses. Numerous disease of tomato, caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematode. Abiotic factors Tomato is subjected to various abiotic stresses, which are unfavorable soil, temperature and water conditions, which cause very extensive losses to the yield of tomato. Similarly salinity, drought, cold, acidity, iron toxicity and submergence under water adversely affect tomato production. Objectives / Aims of thesis In Pakistan lots of work had been done on trees and cereal crops with regards to salt tolerance but very little work had been reported on vegetables. Present investigation was aimed to study the effect of salt on the physiology of tomato genotypes and to transfer the salt tolerant gene in the selected tomato genotype. To achieve this goal twelve tomato genotypes were selected for screening ( ) the mechanism of salt tolerance were studied in these genotypes with respect to plant growth ionic content, water content of plant and the production of ABA- the stress hormones. The genetic diversity among these genotypes was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The tolerant gene was transferred to selected tomat genotype through Agrobacterium mediated gene transformation. Review of literature Response of Plants to Salinity Stress Morphological Responses Salinity affects plant growth and development because of low uptake and accumulation of essential nutrients and high accumulation of toxic ions such as Na+ and Cl- (Sabir and Ashraf, 2008). It reduces the plants ability to take up water which slows down the growth. This is the water-deficit effect of salinity on plants. Second, the salt enters into the transpiration stream and injures the transpiring leaves cells and then further inhibits the growth. This is due to ion-excess toxic effect of salinity (Munns, 1993). Cavalcanti et al., (2007) found that the salt treatment (200 mM NaCl) inhibited the relative growth rate of both leaves and roots. Fresh and dry weights of plants increased with an increase in salinity in Salicornia rubra while the optimal growth occurred at 200 mM NaCl and the growth was inhibited with a further increase in salinity (Khan, 2001). Salt stress decreased the root and shoot growth in rice and sunflower (Rodriguez et al., 2006, Noureen and Ashraf, 2008). Salin ity inhibit metabolic and enzymatic activities which adversely effect growth, flowering and yield of plants (Ramoliya and Panday, 2003). Rabie, (2005) found that salinity inhibited the growth of mungbean. Ghoulam et al, (2002) found that salt treatment resulted in reduction of growth parameters such as fresh and dry weight and a decrease in the K+ concentrations but increased the proline content. Physiological Responses Role of proline in salt tolerance The amino acid proline is recognized to occur extensively in higher plants and normally accumulates in large quantities in response to environmental stress (Kavi Kishore et al., 2005). Salt stress is reported to accumulate the compatible solutes such as proline. A great variation exists for solute accumulation and osmoregulation among the genotypes. Osmoregulation prevents folded protein structures against denaturation, stabilizes cell membranes by increasing phospholipids, or serves as an energy and nitrogen source (Nayyar and Walia, 2004., Claussen, 2005). Proline is a reliable indicator for the evaluation of tolerance or sensitivity of plants to stress (Patel and Vora, 1984). The accumulation of free proline under stress conditions which primarily is due to the stimulation of proline biosynthesis (Rhodes et al., 1986). These solutes being hydrophilic could compete for water at the surface of proteins, protein complexes, or membranes. Under stress conditions they act as stabilizers of proteins, protein complexes or membranes (Ramanjulu and Bartels, 2002. Proline is known to induce to expression of salt stress responsive genes, which posseses proline responsive elements (eg PRE, ACTCAT) in their promoters (Chinuusamy et al., 2005). The callus cultures of rice, modified to grow under increasing levels of NaCl, accumulated considerable amounts of free proline than unadapted cells (Kishor, 1988). Chandler and Thorpe (1987) reported that in Brassica napus, both unselected and tolerant callus better responded to water stress by osmotic adjustment and accumulation of praline. In same way, callus culture of Medicago sativa accumulated proline in response to NaCl stress (Shah et al., 1990). The salt tolerant sugar beet callus was also associated with a significant accumulation of proline under higher levels of salinity (Le Dily et al., 1991). Moreover the proline content in a callus culture of pearl millet grown in 1% NaCl increased more than 20-fold compared with non-salinized controls (Das et al., 1990). Aziz et al. (1999) investigated the alterations induced in the levels of proline in response to salt (NaCl) stress using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown under saline conditions with varying levels of CaCl2 and KCl. There was found marked increase in amounts of proline accumulated in the leaf subjected to higher salinity (100 300 mM NaCl). They also reported that the internal Na+ and Ca2+ levels exerted a positive effect on proline. The accumulation of prolin in plants is mediated by both ABA-dependent and ABA independent signaling pathways (Zhu, 2001 and Zhu, 2002). Role of Abscisic acid in salt tolerance Abscisic acid is a natural growth inhibitor of a 15 carbon sesquiterpenoid and generally known as stress hormone. Its biosynthesis mechanism operates in chloroplast and other plastid by mevalonic acid pathway. ABA promotes adaptation to environmental stress and improve stress tolerance (Hasson and Polijakoff, 1981). ABA accumulate as a result of salinity and water stress and mediates osmotic adaptation of plants (Shinozaki et al., 1997., Stewart and Voetberg, 1995). Abscisic acid plays an important role in plant responses to salt stress (Zhang et al., 2006), it decreases the accumulation of toxic chloride ions (GomezCadenas et al., 1998, 2002) and other adverse effects of NaCl (Popova et al., 1995). The secondary messengers like Ca+2 (Xiong et al., 2002) and reactive oxygen species (Zhao et al., 2001) are involved in stress induced ABA accumulation. ABA is known to intervene signals in plant cells subjected to environmental stresses like salinity and the resulting signals bring about expression of certain stress-related genes followed by the synthesis of compatible solutes such as proline (Kavi Kishore, 2005., de Bruxelles et al., 1996). ABA has been investigated to alleviate the adverse effect of NaCl on photosynthesis, growth and translocation of assimilates (Popova et al., 1995). It has been reported that ABA reduces the release of ethylene and leaf abscission under salt stress in citrus probably by decreasing the accumulation of toxic ClÃ ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢ ions in leaves (GomezCadenas et al., 2002). ABA-inducible genes are predicted to play an important role in the mechanism of salt tolerance in rice (Gupta et al., 1998). Salt stress increased the levels of ABA in Citrus sinensis (Gomez et al., 1998). The increase of Ca2+ uptake is associated with the rise of ABA under salt stress and thus contributes to membrane integrity maintenance (Chen et al., 2001). The osmotic potential in leaves of plants growing in natural salt stress appear to be strongly correlated with ABA content which might contribute in maintaining osmotic potential of leaves under stress. Water deficit conditions induce endogenous ABA that is correl ated with leaf water potential (Zhang et al., 2006). Ionic imbalance Salt stress causes disturbance of ionic equilibrium like influx of Na+, dissipates the membrane potential and facilitates the uptake of Cl- and down regulate the chemical gradient. The Na+ is toxic to normal cell metabolism and has lethal effect on the activity of some enzymes (Tawfik, 2008). The ions involved in salt stress signaling include Na+, K+, H+ and Ca+2. High concentration of ions such as Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and SO42- in saline soils inhibit the growth and development of many plants (Lambers, 2003). High salt uptake competes with the uptake of other nutrient ions, especially K+, leading to K+ deficiency. Increased treatment of salt induces increase in Na+ and Cl- and decrease in Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ levels in a number of plants (Khan et al., 2000; Haleem et al., 2007). Under saline conditions, due to excessive amounts of exchangeable Na+, high Na/Ca2+ ratio occur in soil. Plants subjected to such environments, take up high amounts of Na+, whereas the uptake of K+ and Ca2+ is reduced. Reasonable amounts of both K+ and Ca2+ are required to maintain the integrity and functioning of cell membrane (Wenxue et al., 2003). Decrease of Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents of leaf have been reported upon salt accumulation in Brassica Parviflora suggesting increasing membrane stability and decr ease chlorophyll contents respectively (Parida et al., 2004). The underlying mechanism for maintenance of adequate K+ in plant tissue under salt stress seems to be dependent upon selective cellular K+ and Na+ compartmentation and distribution in the shoots (Carden et al., 2003). Plants use low and high affinity transporters for uptake of K+ from the growth medium (Blumwald, 2000). High K+/Na+ selectivity in plants under saline conditions has been suggested as an important selection criteria for salt tolerance (Ashraf, 2002; Wenxue et al., 2003). The concentration of Na+ and Cl- in leaf was increased when treated with NaCl stress (Gurmani et al., 2007). Tomato Improvement Conventional breeding Conventional plant breeding is commonly utilized in improvement of crop plants and vegetables for better yields and usually it involves the production of variability by making sexual crosses between selected genotypes with characters to be combined, to produce a population of plants that include better genotypes. This is followed by widespread selection from the offspring to identify these genotypes which will ultimately direct to the development of new varieties. This input of new characters or generation of new genetic recombination is partial to the early stages and most of the attempt is taken up by field selection over many years. Over past forty years or so significant yield increase have been achieved in developed countries, about half have contributed by genetic improvement and other half by improved agronomic practices. The main objective of plant breeding is to obtain increase yield, improved quality, disease and pests resistance, stress tolerance and herbicide resistance. A problem of conventional breeding is that agronomically desirable characters are frequently genetically ill defined and many are polygenic. The best current varieties usually have specific defects that breeders wish to improve. Thus there may be sacrifice of quality to obtain a high yielding variety, or the variety may be susceptible to particular pathogen that limits its range of use. 1.12.2 Problems of conventional breeding The problem of conventional breeding is that the range of genes that is accessible is limited to the related species that can be crossed sexually. Variation is important for any breeding programme, but variation itself is exhausted by conventional breeding especially by extensive breeding programme in the last few decades and the gene pool of important crops is highly reduced. The main objective of conventional plant breeding is to obtain increased yield, improved quality (both nutritional and technical), disease and pest resistance, stress tolerance (e.g. drought, cold, heat) and herbicide resistance. Conventional plant breeding, however, has its own limitations. It depends on sexual compatibility and often takes 10-15 years to release a new variety due to extensive backcrossing (Pauls 1995). Environmental stresses are usually much more important factors limiting the food production in the tropics and subtropics than in temperate zones. Salinity is serious threat to tomato production, which hinders the plant development. Resistance to salinity is low, so there is a need to improve the tomato through in vitro approaches. In vitro approaches Tissue culture Tissue culture is a technique used to produce whole plant from an explant. Plant tissue culture is used as a gross term for protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures grown under aseptic conditions. Whatever transformation system would be employed, efficient systems for embroygenic callus induction and shoot regeneration have been considered the basic matter in obtaining fertile transgenic rice. The application of tissue culture has made rapid progress in dicotyledons (Yamada, 1977). Le at al. (1991) showed that hypocotyl segments gave better results for callus induction on media containing 2 or 5 mM 2, 4-D and shoots were derived directly from hypocotyl explants cultured on MS medium with 44.4 mM IBA and 5 mM IAA. Duzvaman et al. (1994) reported more shoot regeneration rate on MS medium supplemented with 0.20 mg/l IAA and 3.0 mg/l IAA and 1-2 mg/l kinetin. Growth of hypocotyl, cotyledons and leaf discs of two tomato cultivars were also compared. The degree of shoot regeneration was in the order of leaves, hypocotyl and cotyledons. Newman et al. (1996) achieved invitro regeneration from 4 tomato cultivars. They used hypocotyl segment as an explant source. They obtained regeneration on basal medium without any hormone as well as on MS medium containing BAP in different concentrations. The best medium for obtaining more shoots was MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l kinetin. BA was also used and had an inhibitory effect on explants obtained from buds. Jatoi et al. (1995) reported the callogenesis and regenerative response of leaf explant of FÃâÃ 1 tomato hybrids, Bornia and Royesta, were studied at different PGR levels. MS medium was supplemented with either IAA (0, 0.7, 1.5 or 2 mg/l), kinetin (0, 3, 4, 5 or 7.5 mg/l) and 2ip (0, 2, 3 and 4 mg/l). Bornia showed a higher frequency of callogenesis than those of Royesta when cultured on MS containing Kin and IAA. Leaf explant of Royesta, incontrast, cultured on MS medium containing BAP and IAA exhibited a higher callogenesis frequency. No regeneration was obtained in any hybrid on MS containing 2ip and NAA. Zagorska et al. (1997) tested the androgenetic ability of 85 tomato genotypes. Callus was induced from anthers of 53 lines and hybrids. Regeneration f plant was obtained only from calli of 15 genotype. The invitro response of anthers from the cultivars Roma, Pearson, San Marzano, Par, Sar, Viga Pol, Day, David and Start containing the ms 1035 gene, which is responsible for the male sterility in tomato, confirm the strongly expressed dependence of both callus induction and organogenetic potential on the homozygous and heterozygous state of that gene. More than 600 regenerants have been obtained. Geetha et al. (1998) obtained white calli from leaf explants on MS medium containing 2, 4-D while regeneration was obtained by sub culturing the calli on MS medium containing. NAA (0.20-1 mg/l) and BAP (2.5-7 mg/l). Shoot regeneration was obtained on all media containing NAA and BAP. Shtereva (1998) observed the factors affecting the induced androgenesis in tomato cv. Roma. Anthers isolated from plants, grown in green house during winter at high humidity and in short days, possessed high androgenetic ability. MS medium were used for callogenesis, organogenesis and regeneration. The combination of 2ip and IAA showed greater % age of callus formation than Zeatin and IAA. Zeatin promote the entire plant regeneration. Treatments at 4oC (48h) and 1DoC (9 days) stimulate these processes. Combined treatment of anthers with 4 Gy and 1DoC for 9 days was most efficient. Takashina et al. (1998) reported that the explants nature effect callus induction and regeneration. Hypocotyl segments showed healthy calli and more regeneration rate on MS medium containing Zeatin but no regeneration from root explants on the same medium. Costa et al. (1999) reported that cotyledon explants of tomato cv. Somta Clara, Firme, mutant 1PA-5 and 1PA-6 were excised from 8-10 days old in vitro grown seedlings. Four different shoot induction media supplemented with timentin (300 mg/l) were screened. Higher regeneration frequency and maximum number elongated shoots were obtained when MS medium supplemented with Zeatin (1 mg/l) and IAA (0.1 mg/l) and also supplemented with timentin. In two of three cultivars tested, rooting of shoots was positively influenced, both in the presence and absence of timentin in the rooting medium, among shoots regenerated from explants derived from timentin-supplemented medium. Oktem et al. (1999) studied the regeneration conditions for leaf pieces of two tomato cultivars (ES58 and WC156). MS medium with Gamborgs vitamins, BAP (2.5 mg/l), IAA (0.2 mg/l) were used for callogenesis and regeneration. Callus formation was observed in more than 90% of the cultured leaf explants in 15-25 days. After 8th week of cultured period, 70% of the leaf pieces in c.v. ES58 developed shoots, whereas 50% from WC156. In cv. ES58, IAA seemed to be important in rooting medium whereas WC156 showed rooting in rooting medium without IAA. Hu, W. and Phillips, G.C. (2001) used different media with different growth regulators in shoot formation and elongation of tomato c.v. UC 82. Cotyledons were used as an explant source from 8-days old invitro plants, the frequency of explants showing shoot bud induction on AB-AZ medium (64.2%) was significantly higher than that on MS101 medium (48.4%). The number of shoot buds per explant obtained using AZ medium (9.4) was significantly higher than those on MS101 (3.8) and MS85 medium (2.5). the highest frequency of shoot elongation was obtained using MS119 medium after transfer from AZ medium. Arillaga et al. (2001) used two different accessions (LA1401 and LA530) of Lycopersicon cheesmanii (Riley) for invitro plant regeneration. Cotyledons and leafdiscs from 20 days old invitro plants were used as an explant source LA1401 showed maximum % age of callogenetic response on full strength MS major salts containing 4.4mM BA and 1.1mM IAA from leaf explants (65%). However the other hormonal combinations i.e. BA/IAA (4.4/1.1 mM) with Zeatin (9.1 mM) showed best results than any other combination. The accession LA530 showed higher organogenetic potential than LA1401 (97% vs 80%) of organogenetic explants. Sonia et al. (2001) studied the genetic stability in tissue cultured tomato plants was examined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Picloram was used along with benzyladenine (BA) for callus induction in tomato. Calli were induced from leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with 8.8 mmM BA and 4.13 mmM picloram. Regeneration was obtained after culturing freshly induced calli on MS medium containing 17.7 mmM BA alone. Microshoots were rooted in the presence of 10 mmM IBA on MS medium. Chaudhry et al. (2001) used two different cultivars of tomato Nagina and Feston for callogenesis and Regeneration. Hypocotyl and leaf discs from 17-18 days old invitro plants were used. More callus response and more fresh weight was obtained on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 2 mg/l BAP. Whereas maximum shoot formation from calli was obtained on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l IAA and 4 mg/l BAP. Feston showed maximum % age of shoot formation in hypocotyl (56%) than leaf disc (42% 30%). So hypocotyl for Feston and leaf explant from Nagina showed better results Genetic transformation studies Genetic manipulation of plants has been an on going science since prehistoric times, when early farmers along the Euphrates began carefully selecting and maintaining seed from their best crops to plant for the next season. Early people also bred plants, and modern crops are a result of thousands of years of genetic manipulation (ONeal 2001). Due to unsuccessful crosses and narrow gene pool available within a species, genetic engineering is now a day, used as an additional tool to crop improvement programs being studied for increasing the qualitative and quantitative food production. Genetic transformation is a process through which genetic materials isolated from one organism can be introduced into and expressed in another organism with different genetic background. This process involves several distinct stages, namely insertion, integration, expression and inheritance of the newly introduced gene in the host genome. In plant, this technology not only has potential to achieve crop improvement with a more rapid and precise manner than the conventional breeding programs, but also has becamean indispensable enabling tool for further dissection and understanding of the plant species. Genetic engineering has allowed explosive expansion of our understanding in the field of plant biology and provides us with the technology to modify and improve crop plants. A remarkable progress has been made in the development of gene transfer technologies (Gasser and Fraley 1989), which ultimately have resulted in production of a large number of transgenic plants both in dicots and monocots. Potential benefits from these transgenic plants include higher yield, enhanced nutritional values, reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and improved control of soil and water pollutants. Some of the important characters like resistance to herbicide (Smith 1994), disease (Smith 1994), insect (Perlak et al. 1990), high protein content (Habben and Larkins 1995), cold tolerance (Georges et al. 1990), fruit quality (Fray and Grierson 1993), bio degradable plastics (Poirier et al. 1995), antibodies and vaccines (Mason et al. 1992) etc. have been incorporated in the genetically engineered plant s. Methods of gene delivery PEG-mediated and Electroporation-mediated tomato transformation Two general methods have been used to introduce DNA into protoplast for transient assays: treatment of protoplast with polyvalent cations or electroporation. Polyvalent cations such s polyethylene glycol (PEG) or poly -L -Ornithine (PLO) have been used extensively to induce protoplast fusion and they are thought to act to promote DNA up take precipitating the DNA ,minimizing charge repulsion between the protoplasts and stimulating DNA up take of DNA endocytosis. With electroporation an electric pulse is used to reversibly permeabilize the cell membrane, allowing the up take of DNA. In many dicots, plants can be regenerated from mesophyll protoplast, but in most crops like cereals theres only scant evidence that protoplast isolated from leaves are capable of sustained divisions. It is difficult to initiate and maintained cell suspension and regeneration capacity has been observed to decline during long term cultivating. So plant regeneration from most protoplast is difficult (Ayres and park, 1994). In addition low efficiency of transformation (Toriyama et al., 1988) and plants regenerated from protoplast are sterile and phenotypically abnormal (Datta et nal., 1992). Other problem include the integration of multiple copies of genes into genomes (TADA at al., 1990), the fragmentation and rearrangement (Wo at al., 1995), and occasional non-mendelian inheritance of transgenes (Peng et al., 1995) Microprojectile bombardment -mediated gene transfer Microprojectile (other wise known as Particle Bombardment) involves directly shooting a piece of DNA into the recipient plant tissue. This is carried out using a gene gun. Tungsten or gold beads (which are smaller than the plant cells themselves) are coated in the gene of interest and fired through a stopping screen, accelerated by Helium, into the plant tissue. The particles pass through the plant cells, leaving the DNA inside. This method can be used on both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species successfully. It is again a relatively simple laboratory procedure. The transformed tissue is selected using marker genes such as those that code for antibiotic resistance. Whole plants are then regenerated from the totipotent transformed cells in culture, containing a copy of the transgene in every single cell (Nottingham, 1998) Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technique: The genetic transformation of plant cells mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a well established system for gene delivery to many dicotyledonous (Binns and Howitz, 1994) and more recently some monocotyledonous species (Smith and Hood, 1995). The possibility to widen the application of Agrobacterium mediated transformation to important crops, such as cereals, represent a real advance in a plant biotechnology (Ishida et al., 1996). Stable plant transformation is commonly achieved by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedures (Ellis, 1993). Agrobacterium is a plant pathogen which causes the formation of crown-galls or tumors in tissues infected by the bacterium (Sheng and Citovsky, 1996 and Gheysen et al., 1998). Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a gram negative soil bacterium that causes a neoplastic plant disease by the transfer and integration into the host genome of a set of plant-expressible-genes (Zupan and Zambryski, 1995). A subset of these genes, termed oncogenes, is involved in the synthesis of plant growth regulators and caused a tumor proliferation of the affected cells (Hooykaas et al., 1988). Briefly the determinants for establishing and sustaining tumors are located mostly on large (200 kb) Ti (Tumor-inducing) plasmids. The T-DNA and the virulence (Vir) regions are two distinct regions of all Ti plasmids which are essential for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The T-DNA is a discrete section of the Ti plasmid bounded by 25 bp imperfect repeats termed as right (RB) and left borders (LB). The T-DNA is transferred to and integrated in the host cell nuclear genome at the onset of infection. The processing of T-DNA and its transfer to the host plant cell nucleus is achieved primarily by the concerted action of about 20 vir gene products. All the plasmid encoded vir genes reside in a region of the Ti plasmid. Ti plasmid-encoded vir genes can function in trans to promote the transfer of T-DNAs from co-resident plasmids to recipient plant cells (Hoekema et al., 1983). Such T-DNA containing plasmids are termed as Ti vectors (Guerineau and Mullineaux, 1993). Genes and sequences to be transformed into plants are inserted between the LB and RB of the Ti vector of T-DNA. Binary Ti vectors are able to replicate in Escherischia coli and Agrobacterium species. Wild type A. tumefaciens strains are converted into transformation vectors by the deletion of either the complete set of oncogenes (Zambryski et al., 1983) or the tumorigenic (oncogene-containing) T-DNA. These processes are referred to as disarming. Ti plasmid gene that are mechanistically involved in T-DNA transfer, the so called virulence gene are not affected by the disarming process. Gene transfer with disarmed A. tumefaciens strains has been used successfully for a large number of plant species. Agrobacterium mediated transformation in dicots. Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato. Induction of resistance by genetic manipulation. Salt tolerant gene.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Sosksksoahsk sanakos I hate you! I love you You re mean You make me feel like a little girl! (Deadpool) Well I know why you re my friend (sense you asked me), it s because I can t ever get bored of you, sometimes it might hurt like it did tonight but I love talking to you and you re so amazing and funny and and fantastic, I might say some mean things, and do some mean things but it s just because... IM NOT A LEACH, I know I always stick around and I m sorry if that s inconvenient to you but I just can t stop, I can t say we make each other whole because you re already pretty whole and we re like opposite people, but I m still not being able to get over your sense of humor, your laugh, your gorgeous blue/gray eyes, and everything about you... I know you show affection by saying you hate me or by calling me names I get it, it s just hard to get used to you re one confusing girl! I ve been by your side consistently for 10 months now, you can tell me anything and I m always here for you and I m not even getting bored, I m writing this like a love note, (it s not one) but I m just saying h ow much you mean to me, this is why you re my friend, I don t know why I m still you re friend because I m an annoying asshole, but most the time I m just trying to connect or talk, or get you mad because you re funny and cute when you re a lil ticked Ã¯Ëâ idk and I guess you said you don t know why I m still your friend, that s your choice,Vince mad me so mad,Show MoreRelated I Hate Narrative Essays1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages I stared at the blinking cursor, unbelieving at what I had just done. I was indeed done; done with a paper I agonized over for 6 hours. The paper was due in a scant 4 hours and I had all week to do it. The radio had stopped working because my brother got on the Internet and thus cut off my connection. That was the least of my problems working on this paper. 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This perspective can be a challenge to express whenRead MorePersonal Reflection1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis past semester was a successful one, where I learned a lot about proper writing. I came into the course with a basic understanding of writing academic papers, and left w ith a good understanding. Throughout the course I became better prepared to meet General Education Student Outlines, and it was evident while revising my first project, the personal narrative. The first objective was Ã¢â¬Å"Students will identify and apply multiple approaches to the study of language, usage, grammar, diction, and styleRead MoreNarrative Essay1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNarrative Essays: To Tell a Story There are four types of essays: Exposition - gives information about various topics to the reader. Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one personÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete theRead MoreAnalysis Of Brent Staples Black Men And Public Space 1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinto thinking he is committing a crime, but eventually reveals how the actions taken towards him are because of the fear linked to his labeled stereotypes of being rapists, gangsters, and muggers. Brent Staples opened a door for discussion, why do we hate those we don t understand? It doesn t help the leader of the free world tweets leisurely while there s more pressing matters to attend to like immigration, DACA, or the senseless kills of innocence with no basis other than the color of skin. My
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the detailed description on the technical solution for the proposed system of Skillage I.T. Company? Answer: 1. Introduction The paper presents a detailed description on the technical solution for the proposed system of Skillage I.T. Company. The design includes architecture design for the new system, which will be employed for the development of the system. Depending on the scope and requirements of the system, multi-tier architecture has been chosen. In addition to this, the paper also gives brief description on the technologies being used at every layer of the architecture. 2. Scope of project The objective also engulfs the programming of the proposed solution and creating the interactions. It also includes the creation of a basic set of web pages that the company will be immediately required to carry out their business with. The incorporation of a third party commercial bank and an online payment processor is also included in the scope of the project. But, the scope does not incorporate the opening of the proposed solution of merchant bank for the client. The extent of the project also includes the testing by users and at delivery time, the proposed solution must be supported on all the major browsers, which include Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Internet Explorer. The proposed solution should also be accessible across all major platforms like desktop computer, mobile phones and tablets. The scope of the project, however, does not cover the aspects of digital marketing, the submission on various search engines and the creation of assets across all social networking platforms. 3. System Requirements and technical design The requirement of the business is to create and develop a proposed solution, which will permit the company to list out all their services on the proposed solution, appeal to new. Explicitly, the proposed solution should include the following: Accessibility A four tiered accessibility has been created for the proposed solution and for the management of its backend that are as follows: Super User The super user will have permission to access and change all the front-end and back end systems. He/she will be able to make changes in the configuration setting of the proposed solution. He/she can also make modifications and access the heart of the proposed solution and will have the permission to take the proposed solution offline. Moderator The user who has access to both the front end and back end of the proposed solution but can make limited changes to the back end like the making and deleting of contents, updating the services on the system. Basically, he/she will the content manager of the proposed solution. In addition to this access, he/she will have the special permission to grant access to registered users of disallow them fully from making any sort of posts or comments. Registered User The user who only has access to the front end of the proposed solution is a registered user. A registered user can also be defined to be the user who is visitor/customers to the proposed solution and has registered himself/herself to the proposed solution using the registration form which is available at the site. He/she will have access to his/her profile where he/she can update his/her various account details such Name, username, contact information, e-mail address, etc. User The user only has access to the front end of the system. However, his/her permission, of access is much lesser than that of a registered user. But, he/she will be allowed to observe the various pages of the proposed solution that are available on the front-end. 24 x 7 availability This feature will be implemented by deploying multiple servers. 4. Current Design of Application The J2EE web based architecture of an application is the main base for the Duke Bookstore application. The JSF pages and the managed beans are both available in the J2EE servers. The JSF pages are there inside a container on the web and the managed beans are there inside the EJB containers. The present application has a very modest tier of information, which stores date in the backing bean. The beans, in turn, load up the initial data that are required for the bookstore. This resolution employs classes for the preparation of the database entries but these are not measurable and adaptable to the new requirements. Some of the major components of the application are as follows- Technology of Java Server Faces (including Contexts and Dependency Injection) Beans for the enterprise API entity with Java persistence The following resources are also used by the application- UI Component (Map Component and Area Component) This is used to render the images of the books on the main page of the application Converters This is used to convert the credit card information that has been provided Bean for data initialization and a bean which manages the data initialization bean Listeners A listeners binds all the action on a JSF page. Their job is to listen to the events that are happening on the webpage and then take appropriate actions in correspondence to them Renderers Managed Beans Bundle of resource for localized messages. 5. Description of the New Solution A multi-tiered and a non-distributed architecture will be used by the application. The separation of the application tiers and the technologies chosen for each tier are illustrated in the figure given. The sample application deployment procedure is also shown in the diagram. The business logic, the integration and the presentation tiers are physically located in the same web containers due the architecture being a collocated one. Each responsibility of each tier can be isolated by distinct interfaces. The application is made simple and scalable by the collocated architecture. Figure 1: 4-tier architecture 5.1. Technology and tiers The Presentation Tier/JSF and MVC The JSF fits perfectly with the MVC based architecture of the presentation tier. JSF gives a clean and easy separation between the presentation and the behavior. The JSF actually influences the known components of the User Interface and the concepts of the web tier without being limited to a specific scripting technology or markup language. Model layers make up the JSF backing beans. The actions, which are an extension of the controller layer, are contained within these beans. They are also responsible for allotting the user request to the business logic tier. Business Logic Tier/The Spring Framework The Business objects and the business services are contained in the business logic tier. A business object contains both the data and a logic that is associated to that specific data. There are 3 business objects that have been recognized in the sample application User, Product and Category. A higher level of business logic is provided by the interaction between business services and business objects. A formal business interface that contains the service interface that is to be used directly by the client should always be defined. The Spring Framework will help the POJO to implement the business logic tier. This framework is also constructed upon the Theory of Inversion of Control or IOC. The spring feature which has been used in the sample application is the following Hibernate Integration Spring does not force us to implement a strong JDBC Abstraction feature. It can easily combine with the O/R mapping frameworks, especially the Hibernate function. It also presents an efficient and safe handling of all Hibernate sessions. It handles the configuration of the Hibernate session and the JDBC data sources of the application context. This is done while the application is made easier for testing. Integration Tier/The Hibernate The open source O/R mapping framework which can forgo the need to implement a JDBC API is known as the Hibernate. This function/tier supports all the main SQL database management system. The Hibernate Query Language is intended to be discreet object oriented extension to the SQL. The bridges the gap between objects and the relational worlds. The job of updating and retrieval of data, management of transactions, programmatic queries, queries for declaration pooling of database connection and the management of entity relationship is done by the Hibernate. Compared to the other O/R mapping frameworks, Hibernate is much less invasive. The generation of SQL occurs at system startup and the runtime bytecode generation is used. The development of persistent objects that follow the common JAVA idioms like association, inheritance, polymorphism, JAVA collection framework and composition is allowed by Hibernate. The explicit need of implementing a hibernate-specific interface is not required by the business objects in the sample application and they are based on a POJO. In addition to this, the solution will use Oracle database because of its strong support for stored procedures. 6. Development tools The development of solution will use following tools: Testing tool - NUnit IDE - NetBeans Application server - Apache web server References Bauer, C., King, G., Bauer, C. (2007). Java persistence with Hibernate. Greenwich, Conn.: Manning. Dennis, A., Wixom, B., Tegarden, D. (2002). Systems analysis and design, an object-oriented approach with UML. New York, NY: Wiley. George, J. (2004). Object-oriented systems analysis and design. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Gulzar, N. (2003). Practical J2EE application architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne. Johnson, R., Hoeller, J. (2004). Expert one-on-one J2EE development without EJB. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub./Wrox. Seddighi, A. (2009). Spring persistence with hibernate. Birmingham, U.K.: Packt Pub. Swain, G. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Through Unified Modeling Language. Xu, J., Han, Y. (2004). Design and implementation of a J2EE application.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Freedmen Define Freedom I At first, the freed Blacks faced a confusing situation, as many slave owners re-enslaved their slaves after Union troops left. Other planters resisted emancipation through legal means, citing that emancipation wasnt valid until local or state courts declared it. II . Some slaves loyally stuck to their owners while others let out their pent-up bitterness by pillaging their former masters land, property, and even whipping the old master. Ill.Eventually, even resisting plantation owners had to give up their slaves, and afterwards tens of thousands of Blacks took to the roads to find new work or look for lost loved ones. IV. The church became the focus of the Black community life in the years following the war. Emancipation also meant education for Blacks, but despite Al the gains Blacks made, they still faced severe discrimination and would have to wait a century before truly attaining their rights. We will write a custom essay sample on The Ordeal of Reconstruction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ill. The Freedmans Bureau I. N order to train the unskilled and unlettered freed Blacks, the Freedmans Bureau was set up on March 3, 1865. Union General Oliver O. Hardheaded it. II. The bureau taught about 200,000 Blacks how to read (its greatest success), since most former slaves wanted to narrow the literary gap between them and Whites; the bureau also read the word of God. Ill. However, it wasnt as effective as it could have been, as evidenced by the further discrimination f Blacks, and it expired in 1872 after much criticism by racist Whites.IV. Johnson: The Tailor President I Andrew Johnson came from very poor and humble beginnings, and he served in Congress for many years (he was the only Confederate congressman not to leave Congress when the rest of the South seceded). Al. He was feared for his reputation of having a short temper and being a great fighter, was a dogmatic champion of states rights and the Constitution, and he was a Tennessee who never earned the trust of the North and never regained the confidence Of the South. V. Presidential ReconstructionI Since Abraham Lincoln believed that the South had never legally withdrawn from the Union, restoration was to be relatively simple. In his plan for restoring the union, the southern states could be reintegrated into the Union if and when they had only of its voters pledge and taken an oath to the union, and also acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves; it was appropriately called the Ten Percent Plan. Like the loving father who welcomed back the prodigal son, Lincoln plan was very forgiving to the South. II. The Radical Republicans felt punishment was due the South for all he years of strife.They feared that the leniency of the 10 % Plan would allow the Southerners to re-enslave the newly freed Blacks, so they rammed the Wade-Davis Bill through Congress. It required 50% of the states voters to take oaths of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than the 10% Plan. Ill. However, Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill by letting it expire, and the 10% Plan remained. IV. Let became clear that there were now two types of Republicans: the moderates, who shared the same views as uncoil and the radicals, who believed the South should be harshly punished. Sadly though, Lincoln was assassinated. This left the 10% Plans future in question. When Andrew Johnson took power, the radicals thought that he would do what they wanted, but he soon proved them wrong by basically taking Lincoln policy and issuing his own Reconstruction proclamation: certain leading Confederates were disfranchised (right to vote removed), the Confederate debt was repudiated, and states had to ratify the 13th Amendment. VI. The Baleful Black Codes I. N order to control the freed Blacks, many Southern states passed Black Codes, laws aimed at keeping the Black population in submission and errors in the fields; some were harsh, others were not as harsh. II. Blacks who jumped their labor contracts, or walked off their jobs, were subject to penalties and fines, and their wages were generally kept very low. Ill. The codes forbade Blacks from serving on a jury and some even barred Blacks from renting or leasing land, and Blacks could be punished for idleness by being subjected to working on a chain gang. IV.Making a mockery out of the newly won freedom of the Blacks, the Black Codes made many abolitionists wonder if the price of the Civil War was worth it, since Blacks were hardly utter after the war than before the war. They were not slaves on paper, but in reality, their lives were little different. VII. Congressional Reconstruction I. Len December, 1865, when many of the Southern states came to be reintegrated into the Union, among them were former Confederates and Democrats, and most Republicans were disgusted to see their former enemies on hand to reclaim seats in Congress. II.During the war, without the Democrats, the Republicans had passed legislation that had favored the North, such as the Merrill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, and the Homestead Act, so now, many Republicans didnt want to give up the power that they had gained in the war. Ill-Northerners now realized that the South would be stronger politically than before, since now, Blacks counted for a whole person instead of just 3/5 of one, and Republicans also feared that the Northern and Southern Democrats would join and take over Congress and the White House and institute their Black Codes over the nation, defeating all that the Civil War gained.IV. On December 6, 1865, President Johnson declared that the South had satisfied all of the conditions needed, and that the Union was now stored. VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress I Johnson repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed bills, such as a bill extending the life of the Freedmans Bureau, and he also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill, which conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes. Al. As Republicans gained control of Congress, they passed the bills into laws with a 2/3 vote and thus override Johnnys veto.Ill-Len the 14th Amendment, the Republicans sought to instill the same ideas of the Civil Rights Bill: (1 ) all Blacks were American citizens, (2) if a state denied citizenship o Blacks, then its representatives in the Electoral College were lowered, (3) former Confederates could not hold federal or state office, and (4) the federal debt was guaranteed while the Confederate one was repudiated (erased). IV. The radicals were disappointed that Blacks werent given the right to vote, but all Republicans agreed that states wouldnt be accepted back into the Union unless they ratified t he 14th Amendment. K Swinging Round the Circle with Johnson l. Len 1866, Republicans would not allow Reconstruction to be carried on without the 14th Amendment, and as election time approached, Johnson anted to lower the amount of Republicans in Congress, so he began a series of Round the Circle speeches. Al. However, as he was heckled by the audience, he hurled back insults, gave give me hell speeches, and generally denounced the radicals, and in the process, he gave Republicans more men in Congress than they had before-?the opposite of his original intention. X. Republican Principles and Programs .By then, the Republicans had a veto-proof Congress and nearly unlimited control over Reconstruction, but moderates and radicals still couldnt agree with one another. Al. Len the Senate, the leader of the radicals was Charles Sumner, long since recovered from his caning by Preston Brooks, and in the House, the radical leader was Thatched Stevens, an old, sour man who was an unswerving friend of the Blacks. Ill. The radicals wanted to keep the South out of the Union as long as possible and totally change its economy and the moderates wanted a quicker Reconstruction.What happened was a compromise between the two extremes. XSL. Reconstruction by Sword l. The Reconstruction Act of March 2, 1 867 divided the South into five military zones, temporarily disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates, ND laid down new guidelines for the readmission of states (Johnson had announced the Join restored, but Congress had not yet formally agreed on this). All states had to approve the 14th Amendment, making all Blacks citizens. All states had to guarantee full suffrage of all male former slaves. II.The 15th Amendment, passed by Congress in 1869, gave Blacks their right to vote. Ill. Len the case Ex apart Mulligan (1 866), the Supreme Court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians, even during wartime, if there were civil courts available. IV. By 1870, all of the states had complied with the tankards of Reconstruction, and in 1 877, the last of the states were given their home rule back, and Reconstruction ended. The end of Reconstruction was part of the Compromise of 1877-?the two presidential candidates were at a stalemate and the only way to break the stalemate was with a deal.In the deal, the North got their president (Rutherford B. Hayes) and the South got the military to pull-out (abandon? ) the South and the former slaves, thus ending Reconstruction. XII. No Women Voters I Women suffrage advocates were disappointed by the 1 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, since they didnt give women suffrage. After all, women had gathered petitions and had helped Blacks gain their rights. Frederick Douglass believed in the womens movement, but believed that it was now the Negroes hour. II As a result, women advocates like Elizabeth Caddy Stanton and Susan B.Anthony campaigned against the 14th and 1 5th Amendments-?Amendments that inserted the word male into the Constitution for the first time ever. XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South I. Backs began to organize politically, and their main vehicle was the Union League. It became a network of political clubs that educated members in heir civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates, and later even built Black churches and schools, represented Black grievances, and recruited militias to protect Blacks. Black women attended the parades and rallies of Black communities.II-Black men also began to hold political offices, as men like Hiram Revels and Balance K. Bruce served in Congress (they represented Mississippi). Ill Southern Whites hated seeing their former slaves now ranking above them, and they also hated scalawags, Southerners who were accused of plundering Southern treasuries and selling out the Southerners, and carpetbaggers, Northerners accused of parasitic Ill milking power and profit in a now-desolate South. IV. One could note that Southern governments were somewhat corrupted during these times.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Summary The first decade of democracy in South Africa saw drastic changes in the media in relation to the normative frameworks, the ownership of the media companies, and a broadening audience.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These changes propagated more friction between the government and the media because of content coverage, and the need for the politicians in power to protect their reputations. Structural issues of the media were a particular source of conflict between the media and the post-apartheid government. For instance, in 1994, Mandela was among the first politicians to condemn the media companies because they were racially imbalanced. Most of the companies were still owned by white men who had no experience in the dynamics of the difficult life that the majority of the South Africans led (Wasserman, 2006). The situation got worse toward the end of the 1990s, and the Human Rights Commission was compelled to conduct an investigation of the alleged cases of racism on the part of the media. Strengths and Weaknesses The conflict between the South African media and the government led to the development of a workshop to develop media ethics to ensure that the media didnÃ¢â¬â¢t serve as a tool for spreading racism. Thabo Mbeki, the successor of Mandela also indicated his worry that the media companies were extremely biased in reporting political issues of the nation (Wasserman, 2006). One of the strengths of the South African media over the years has been the ability to highlight the multicultural issues that face the citizens. Its greatest weakness has been the attainment of a balance in unbiased reporting in relation to the issues facing the minority and the majority racial groups.Advertising Looking for critical writing on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get you r first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting The implications of ethical reporting in the nation were the development of cohesion in the society by using the media as a tool for preaching peace and love to the nation. Working under the set guidelines also meant that journalists in the different media houses had to take part in a national audit that evaluated their qualifications. The development of ethics in reporting saw the South African media undergo various phases of change. The media started from the exclusionary phase, whereby the whites and the blacks had their respective media reporters who covered information relevant to the respective groups. The threatening-issue phase was engulfed by the whites media reports that portrayed blacks as a threat to peace. The confrontational phase began after independence, whereby the government fought to change the ownership of the media. The stereotypical selection phase involved the el imination of racially focused reporting to address other stereotypes in the society like gender. The current stage is the multi-racial coverage stage, which entails the media and the government striving to eliminate racial bias in reporting. Contribution to Understanding International Media Through the lens of the eye of the South African Media, one can understand the dynamics of reporting, whereby the media is always on a quest to deliver public interests. Media reporting is a powerful tool that can build or destroy a society, depending on the willingness of companies to embrace reporting ethics. South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s case also enlightens people about the constant conflicts that the international media companies face with different political entities. Critical Questions What is the distinction between public interests and national interests? Who is the victim in unethical reporting, the government, the media or the public? Should people always trust the media to deliver public inte rests? What can compel the media to become an advocate for national and international cohesion among the people in the society?Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Summary The article focuses on safety for journalists in their workplaces. Journalists who remain adamant about broadcasting the truth and criticizing politicians and their ideas have faced a rough time (Ã¢â¬Å"Media and Political Globalization,Ã¢â¬ 2011). Many journalists have been killed under mysterious circumstances that point to their boldness in reporting political issues. For instance, the beheading of the renowned journalist, Daniel Pearl, revealed the danger that journalists face in different parts of the world as they try to report on different political issues. Many international organizations have taken the responsibility of addressing the plight of journalists. For instance, UNESCO, CPJ, Reporters without Borders, and many other organizations have developed programs that look to advocate the protection of journalists and their freedom of expression. It is apparent that the globalization of politics has led to the rise in killings of journalist. In the past, journalists from different nations could mingle with conflicting groups without the danger of being attacked. In the current state of globalization, journalists are becoming easy targets for terrorist groups and other conflicting militants. Strengths and Weaknesses Many journalists have died in mysterious circumstances, and this is an indication that the freedom accorded to the media is only theoretical (Ã¢â¬Å"Media and Political Globalization,Ã¢â¬ 2011). Others have been killed while handling fieldwork, whereby their encounters with terrorists turns sour. Journalism is a dangerous profession, especially for those who dare to report controversial stories. The globali zation of the media and politics has led to an addition to the political pressures that journalists and their media companies face while reporting. One of the strengths of being in the media is the power to change the world through the delivery of authentic controversial political information. It is, however, a dangerous endeavor for most journalists.Advertising Looking for critical writing on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting Ethics in reporting dictate that the media should always give authentic information to the people. Inciting the society to make specific political decisions is unethical, and it should be eliminated by ensuring the media is protected from politicians and business entities (Ã¢â¬Å"Media and Political Globalization,Ã¢â¬ 2011). Failing to observe the required ethics presents the media as a direct enemy and hurdle to both public and national interests. Contribution to Understanding International Media The media companies are perfect tools for influencing political changes across the world. The article highlights different cases of journalists who have faced the ultimate injustice in the quest to bring information to the international community. The article clearly highlights the need for the international community to develop mechanisms to safeguard journalists in their work. Reporting issues of public and international interests ha s continually become a challenge because of the dangers that journalists face at work (Ã¢â¬Å"Media and Political Globalization,Ã¢â¬ 2011). The article paints a clear picture of the dangers of being involved in international journalism. The changing climate of politics in the globe has subjected journalists to murderous treatment by conflicting political groups, and this call for the international community to focus on the plight of journalists. Critical Questions What is the plight of journalists? What factors in the globalization of politics have led to the sudden change in the way conflicting groups treat journalists? Does the bias in reporting political issues have a role to play in the current challenges facing journalists across the world? Which intervention programs, besides the existing efforts, must be implemented? References Media and Political Globalization: Killing Stories-and Journalism. (2011). In J. Lule (Ed.), Globalization and Media: Global Village of Babel (pp. 95-120). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield Publishers. Wasserman, H., De Beer, A. S. (2006). Debating the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in post-apartheid South Africa. In K. Voltmer (Ed.), Mass media and political communication in new democracies (pp. 59-73). London: Routledge. This critical writing on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections was written and submitted by user Leilani Pennington to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.